Hindi Learning Hints. 1. The Versatile vaalaa Suffix

Brian Steel

Copyright ©  2012  Brian Steel

[Version 1. 1 November 2012]
[Version 2. 3 November 2012]

(This is the first of a series of articles on practical aspects of Hindi language learning for foreigners. A link to the Introduction to the series is given at the end of this presentation. I am happy to repeat here my acknowledgement of the guidance of my tutor, Indramohan Singh, especially for his versatility in translating terminology and explaining convoluted Hindi sentences on a very wide variety of topics and also for his suggested amendments to Version 1. My thanks also to Dr Yashovardhan Singh for his suggested amendments to Version 1.)
December 2014: In two years, this article has been accessed 3,800 times. If you have any comments or corrections, please send them to me at ompukalani@hotmail.com
Other articles on Hindi prefixes (7,300 hits), suffixes (5,000 hits) and, a year ago,100+ postpositions (1000 hits) have since been posted on this website. *

Readers with little time to spare on these descriptive remarks may derive benefit from a study of the various lists given later in this article.

From a language-learning point of view, one of the main areas where comprehension shortcuts can be achieved in language learning and vocabulary comprehension is by acquiring a familiarity with the morphological system of affixes (prefixes and suffixes), which give a key to groups or whole families of words. For example, in English, pre-, anti-, pro-, sub-, vice-, etc. and -(a)tion, -ence, -ise or -ize, -ful, -(i)ous, etc.

Hindi affixes will be the subject matter of articles 2 and 3 of this series. However, the ubiquity, fecundity, and sheer versatility of the Hindi suffix (or particle) vaalaa  [‘wallah’] (and its variant forms, vaalee (feminine), vaale (plural) and vaaloN (oblique), puts it into a class of its own. Hindi learners need to be very familiar with this iconic particle. 

Like other affixes, vaalaa is a morphological feature, as are its main equivalents in other languages, including the common English suffixes -er and -ing, which (like vaalaa) are used to produce descriptive nouns and qualifiers like ‘farmer’ and ‘sparkling’ (as a nominal qualifier and a verbal present participle). When used with a verb and a noun, vaalaa is similar to the -ing ending of English compounds like ‘money-making’, ‘English-speaking’,  ‘thought-provoking’, or ‘ocean-going’. Indeed, Google translates ‘profit-making schemes’ as laabh kamaane vaalee yojanaaoN  ( लाभ कमाने वाली योजनाओं ).

As in English, monolingual and bilingual dictionaries tend to define suffixes but not to list words sharing the same suffix, which would not be practical. The same is true in bilingual Hindi-English dictionaries. However, in the case of vaalaa, although grammar books for foreign learners offer valuable basic information, as a beginner (and even beyond that stage), I would have made faster progress in comprehension of the vaalaa suffix in spoken and written Hindi if I could have consulted a more detailed analysis with plenty of examples. This article mirrors one learner’s attempts to bridge that gap, both for myself and for other foreign learners of Hindi. (And to be honest, in spite of the work done, I still find vaalaa a bit of a challenge.)

Incidentally, although Google Translate and Microsoft Translate have major ongoing lexical and structural problems with Hindi, they are still very very valuable for Anglo (or any) learners of Hindi on a lexical level, which includes simple instances of vaalaa.

One of the leading lights in Hindi Machine Translation, Professor R. Mahesh K. Sinha (RMKS) describes the acute MT problems presented by the vaalaa phenomenon in several of his academic articles. In an abstract of one of these, Dr. Sinha gives the following brief description:
“The Hindi morpheme vaalaa is very widely used as a suffix and also as a separate word. The common usage of this suffix is to denote an activity or profession of a person. This form of the usage has been borrowed in English with the spelling of ‘wallah'. However, it has a large number of other interpretations depending upon the context in which it is used” (R. Mahesh K. Sinha, 2009, ICMLA 653-7).
It is the aim of this article to present and give examples of the very wide scope of those other “interpretations” (and their contexts), as well as of the simple ‘wallah’ one and the simple -ing one.

As already outlined, the basic function of vaalaa is to accompany a variety of sentence elements to describe people, things and actions. The resulting formations and combinations may be short or more complex. The suffix may be used with nouns, adjectives, adverbs, adverbial expressions, postpositional constructions, and oblique infinitive forms. Unlike other suffixes it is often written as a separate word. (It is my impression that Google and Microsoft translation software systems prefer to deal with the single word combination.)

Dictionaries usually offer an example or two of the simplest combinations of vaalaa with nouns referred to by R. Sinha above, i.e. those nouns referring to occupations and identities, the sort of  compounds foreign tourists are familiar with: ‘dhobeewallahs’  (clothes washers) and even perhaps the impressively efficient army of ‘dabbawallahs’ who deliver tiffin lunchboxes from Mumbai homes to thousands of officeworkers every day.

In fact, as Sinha says, vaalaa does so much more than that. Perhaps it therefore deserves closer attention by compilers of dictionaries. A related lexicographical suggestion is that the more frequent nominal vaalaa (wallah) compounds should be included in both bilingual Hindi-English and English-Hindi dictionaries.

The following classification of uses of vaalaa is based on a close study of work by grammarians, lexicographers, and linguists as well as a great deal of reading and media watching and listening over the past three years and the perusal of many online articles in Hindi. My major initial sources of enlightenment were the grammars by R. S. McGregor, 1972 (McG), Michael C. Shapiro,1989 (MS), and Rama Kant Agnihotri, 2006 (RKA). Productive quarries for examples were easily accessible from radio, TV and on the Internet  (especially Hindi Wikipedia). The end Reference list gives details of the major sources and several other useful Internet sources of information for learners of Hindi.

Part 1. The Basics about vaalaa, vaalee, vaale, vaaloN

1. Noun, postpositions, pronouns, etc. + vaalaa

Note: As McGregor and others point out, the oblique form of nouns is sometimes used with vaalaa (etc.), particularly in the case of masculine nouns ending in -aa:
e.g. rikshevaalaa or rikshaavaalaa, rickshaw driver.

a) to form nouns or nominal groups denoting occupation, affiliation, users, makers, ownership, membership, etc.
Typical English equivalents  are  nouns ending in -er, -or, -man, people, etc.

akhbaarvaalaa, newspaper vendor (RKA)
dabbaavaale, the amazingly efficient tiffin box deliverymen from Mumbai
dhobeevaalaa /ee, washerman / woman
doodhvaalaa, milkman, dairy farmer
(ghoraa >) ghorevaalaa, horse dealer (RKA, 58)
gubbarevaale, balloon sellers
kabaareevaalaa, junk collector
kaprevaalaa, clothes seller
phalvaalaa, fruit seller (MS)
phulvaalaa, flower seller
sabzeevaalaa, vegetable seller
ugaanevaale, growers (sabzee ugaanevaale)
shikaaraavaalaa, boatman
raNganevaalaa / ee, painter, painter

pulisvaalaa, policeman, pulisvaalee, police woman
pulisvaale, policemen, police; pulisvaaloN (ko), (to) the police
gharvaalaa, householder (RKA)
paisevaalaa, rich man / person (R. Snell)
shaasanvaale, rulers; those in power

gaNdhee vaalaa, Gandhi follower
kaNgresvaale, Congress members / politicians/ supporters< (kaNgresee may be more common.)

b) by origin or destination: the one / people from …;

ganga vaale, people of the Ganga (Ganges)
dillee vaalaa, person from Delhi
dillee vaalee tren, train to / from Delhi
maharashtraa vaale, Maharashtrians
gaaNvvaalaa, villager
(x men) rahnevaalaa, resident (of x) [pron. rehne-]

c) vaalaa combined with pronouns

the … one / ones, those (from wordreference.com forum 2009)

yah vaalaa, this one (R. Snell)
voh vaalaa, that one   + the … one;  the one from …
ye vaalee, these ones (fem.) 

d) vaalaa plus adverbs, postpositions, etc.

ooparvaalaa, God  [oopar, above]
ooparvaale, those on top, the elite;
ooparvaale kamre men, in the upstairs room
bahaar vaale, outsiders
pehle vaalaa, the one before
kal vaalaa, yesterday’s (one)
paas vaalaa, nearby
paas-paas vaale, close together
beechvaalaa, middleman, mediator; middle (adj)
saamnevaalaa, (person/thing) facing, opposite; s. ghar, the house opposite
2000 vaalaa + noun. person born in 2000, person earning 2000 ($, Rs.), etc.

e) vaalaa plus characteristics and qualities

neelaa vaalaa, the blue one 
peelee vaalee, yellow one (f.)
haraavaale, the green ones
dilvaalaa, magnanimous (one)
himmat vaalaa, courageous (one)

laalsaareevaalee aurat, the woman with / in the red sari (McG)
topivaalaa, the one with the hat
ek pandrah paisevaalaa tikat, a 15-paise ticket (McG)
ooNchaaee vaalaa, high altitude (attribute: atr.)
adhik aabaadee vaalaa shahar [pr. shehair], the most populous city
(Hindi Wikipedia: ebardeen) (Ref.: HW)

f) other combinations of noun + vaalaa:

bimaareevaale, disease-causing
oorjaa vaalaa,  power (adj. or attribute)
teen raNg vaalaa, tricolour (http://en.bab.la/dictionary/hindi-english/)
aath kone vaalaa, octagonal (en.bab.la)
kameevaale, lacking
sikke vaalaa fon, coin phone
daail vaalaa modem, dial-up modem

poochhe jaanevaale savaal, FAQs
uttam gunoN vaalaa, having good qualities
nimn gunoN vaalaa, having low qualities

2. VERBAL vaalaa uses

Vaalaa follows oblique infinitives (e.g. -jaane) as two words or one.
Basic verbal meaning: about to +verb, or going to + verb.

a) It is especially frequent and productive with aane and jaane; less so with hone.

voh aane vaale hai,  He is JUST coming

ham jaanevaale haiN, We are about to go.
maiN bazaar jaanevaalaa hooN, I’m just going to the market.
voh yoonivarsitee jaane vaalaa hai, He is about to go to/ He is on his way to university.


kyaa hone vaalaa hai? What’s going to happen?
baarish hone vaalee (hai), It is about to rain.
dukaan baNd hone vaalee hai. The shop is closing / about to close. (R. Snell)

b)  Other verbs

Raahul bolnevaalaa thaa, Rahul was about to speak (MS, 90)
maiN fon karne vaalaa thaa, I was about to use the phone.
maiN inkee thaalee chaatne vaalaa hooN, I am going to lick their thali plate.

With emphatic hee preceding vaalaa:
maiN khaane hee vaalaa thaa, I was about to eat (MS)
maiN bhaarat jaane hee vaalaa hai, I am about to go to India.

3. Verbal OR descriptive uses with nouns, adjectives, etc.  

These are the major uses for the learner to grapple with and master. In general, depending on the context, suitable English translation may be by verbal or descriptive endings -er, and -ing, or adjectival endings like -ive, -(i)ous, -ant, -ent, -able, etc.

3.1  aane, jaane, and hone

a) aane vaalaa, vaalee, vaale, vaaloN
coming, next, forthcoming, about to come, to come, incoming, which is coming, future, rising, etc.

aane vaalaa, coming next, incoming (calls, etc.);
aanevaalaa, visitor
aanevaale, the coming generation
aane vaale shanivaar, next Saturday
aane vaale dinoN men, in the coming days
aane vaalaa teevee chainal hai, it is a forthcoming TV Channel, (planned)
(Place or Function) X + aanevaale,  attendees, people going to X

b) jaane

b1) jaane vaalaa 1
going, about to go, ongoing, outgoing, -bound, forthcoming.

[X aur Y] aNtim daur men jaane vaaloN ko bhee paraajit kar diyaa, Going into the final round, X & Y were defeated. (HW: Maaikal Ballaik)

b2)  jaane vaalaa 2.

In its separate role as passive auxiliary verb, jaanaa also combines to form a very important construction consisting of jaane + vaalaa + a preceding past verb form (e.g. kiyaa jaane vaalaa, diyaa jaane vaalaa, kee / dee jaane vaalee (f), etc.

Very often all that is needed in English is a simple past participle (-d), or the following permutations. (As with other vaalaa uses, English translation may be shorter than the original.)

going to be -d (English past participle), about to be -d, being + -d, and to be –d, or, which is -d.

poochhe jaanevaale savaal, FAQs
kisee rachnaa prastut kiyaa jaane vaalee, any composition (to be) presented …
prati varsh diyaa jaane vaalaa puruskaar, an / the annually awarded prize (HW: baidmiNtan)
paayaa jaane vaalaa, to be found, found
paaee jaane vaalee, is found, which (f.) is found
prayukt kiyaa jaane vaalaa pad shabd hai. the terms used  (HW: kaauNtree seet)
vikasit kiyaa jaane vaalaa hai. it is developed (HW: ebardeen)

A common written Hindi sentence pattern involving the “jaane 2” sequence is:  X + past verb + jaane vaalaa (etc.) +ek +Y +hai (etc.). English: “X is a Y.”  or “This is a Y.”

Yeh cheen men bolee jaane vaalee ek pramukh bhaashaa hai.
(Here, bolee is the past feminine singular form of bolnaa, not the feminine noun bolee, ‘dialect’.) Translation: This is a major language spoken in China  
The same pattern expanded:
holee vasaNt ritu men manaayaa jaane vaalaa ek mahatvapoorn bhaarateey tyauhaar, Holi, which is celebrated in the Spring, is an important Indian festival. (HW: )

… do khilaariyoN ke beech khelaa jaane vaalaa ek khel hai. It is a game played between two players
shatru se surakshaa ke lie banaae jaane vaalee bildiNg, a building constructed for defence from enemies (HW: durg)

More examples (and translation practice) of this important construction will be given in Part 2.

c) hone vaalaa

Translation seems more difficult to encapsulate in the case of hone vaalaa but possible solutions centre around finding English descriptors for the honaa concepts of being, existing and happening, like:
existing, present, happening, ?about to happen, occurring, found, being –d, and even ‘usual’.
In some cases the definite article ‘the’ (absent from Hindi) may be sufficient translation. Indeed, this may be a major function of hone vaalaa.

landan men hone vaale kheloN, the London Games, [being held / happening in London now]
disambar hone vaalaa, (to be) held in December
khaanaa banaane men istemaal honevaale bartan, utensils useable for cooking (cooking utensils)
paidaa hone vaalaa, incipient, growing

Notice also, the emphatic pattern mentioned earlier: hone hee vaalaa, imminent (en.bab.la)

3.2 Other verbs

These vaalaa compounds are extremely varied since so many Hindi verbs can be used.

As a very rough guide, translation will, once again, most frequently be with -er and -ing to produce adjectives, attributes (atr) and nouns. English relative clauses may also be appropriate at times: the one who … those who …

lene vaalaa, (person) taking; taker, receiver
laane vaalaa, bringer, bringing
dene vaalaa, giving, giver

barhnevaalaa, growing, increasing
basnevaale, inhabitants
bataane vaalaa, narrator
bechnevaale, sellers
bhejne vaalaa, sender
bolnevaale, speakers, speaking
chhornevaale, leaving, leavers
daalnevaalaa, dropper, pourer; pouring
dekhnevaale,watchers, watchers, viewers
dikhaanevaale, demonstrators
gaanevaalaa / vaalee, singer
jeetnevaalee, (f) winner
kholnevaale, opening, openers, going to open (transitive verb)
laraane vaale, provokers, provocateurs,
likhnevaalaa, writer

maaNgnevaale, seekers, claimants
maanne vaalaa, likely to agree (RMKS), or, verbally, Voh maanne vaalaa hai, He is agreeable (to ...)
maarne vaalaa, killer, killing (en.bab.la)
marne vaalaa, dying (person)

nahaanevaalaa sabun, bath soap (MS)
nikalnevaale, coming out, emerging:
paanevaale, receivers, receiving
parhnevaalaa, reader, bookworm
peenevaalaa, smoker; drinker
phailne vaalaa, contagious (en,bab.la)
poochhnevaale, questioners

rahnevaalaa, resident, occupant, living [pr. rehne-]
rakhnevaalaa, holder, possessor, keeper; holding;
rokne vaalaa, prohibitive (en.bab.la)
sunnevaalaa, listener; sunnevaaloN ko, to the l.
tootnevaale,  breaker

3.3 with additional adjective or adverb:
 -er, -ing, and relative clauses: the one(s) who, those who

kal aane vaale log, the people who are coming tomorrow (RMKS)
nae aanevaale (log), newcomers
(x men) rehne vaalaa, resident / living (in x)
saare din sonevaale, those who sleep all day
aisaa karnevaale, people who act like this
fon par bolnevaale, people speaking on the phone (MS, 90)
peechhe aane vaalaa, subsequent (en.bab.la)
kam bolne vaalaa, reticent (en.bab.la)
samudr meN jaane vaalaa, sea-going (en.bab.la)
sthaan-sthaan par jaane vaalaa, peripatetic (en.bab.la)
aage jaane vaalaa, forerunner, precursor, (en.bab.la)

4. Noun + oblique verb + vaalaa
Translation: as previously suggested

karnaa combinations are the most frequent:

apmaan karnevaale, those who insult
hamlaa karnevaalaa, attacker, attacking,
jaaNch karnevaale, investigators
jasoosee karnevaalaa, spying  
madad karnevaale, helpers
netritva karnevaalaa, leading, leader

pareshaan karnevaale, worriers
pradaan karnevaalaa, donor
pratinidhitva karne vaale, delegates, representatives
shak karne vaalaa, sceptic, (en.bab.la)
spotfiksiNg karnevaalaa, spotfixer, spotfixing
uthal-pathal karnevaalaa, causer of disturbances
virodh karnevaale, opponents
virodh pradarshan karnevaale, protesters, demonstrators
vishvaas karne vaale, believers
vyay karne vaalaa, consumer

noun + denaa combinations are also varied:
aaykar denevaalaa, taxpayer
chaNdaa denevaalaa, contributor (en.bab.la)
dhokhaa denevaale, frauds, cheats, swindlers,
soochnaa denevaale, informants

ravannaa honevaale, those returning
ruk rukkar hone vaalaa, spasmodic, jerky
vaapas aane vaalaa, returning

hindee bolne vaale, Hindi speakers, Hindi-speaking
aNgrezee bolnevaale, English speakers; English-speaking
jhooth bolne vaalaa, liar
urdoo likhne vaalaa, Urdu writer

prabhaav daalne vaale, very influential (people)
pataa lagaanevaale, finders
aarop lagaanevaaloN ko, (to) the accusers
dosh lagaane vaale, accusers
penshan paanevaale, pensioners, pension recipients

qanoon tornevaale, lawbreakers
hathiyaar uthnevaale, arms-bearing / arms-carrying (people)
uranevaale vaayuyaanoN, flying aircraft

doodh peenevaalaa bachcha, breastfeeding child
ghaas kaatne vaalaa, (lawn) mower (en bab.la)
rekord banaanevaalaa, record breaker / breaking
hindee seekhnevaalaa chaatr, Hindi-learning student
uttar dene vaalaa vyakti, the person answering, the person who answers/answered

Part 2. Further examples of vaalaa
(Especially in formal and media speech and writing, and in technical language registers)

1. A vaalaa compound sentence structure

Hindi scholars R. McGregor and M. Shapiro both point out that in a pattern consisting of a verbal use of vaalaa (with hee, = just), a second clause may be introduced by ki meaning ‘when’: 
maiN khaane hee vaalaa thaa ki uske mitra mere yahaaN pahuNche, I was just about  to eat when his friends arrived at my place. (MS, 90)

2. Uses with negatives
na + -ne + vaalaa
a) meaning ‘non-’:
… laabh na kamaane vaalaa, non-profit making  (HW)
b) meaning ‘not (a)’:
 jhooth na bolnevaalaa, not a liar

3. Further examples of aane, hone, and jaane

As indicated in Part 1, the distinction between of aane vaalaa and hone vaalaa is not always easy to make in English.

Both forms may be used in combination with the same noun in different formations (e.g. istemaal, use, consumption, application and baarish, rain).
In case this helps clarify the situation, this is how my patient tutor explained the verbal uses to me.
baarish aane vaalee hai, it is about to rain; it will rain
baarish hone vaalee hai, rain is coming, it will be raining

(baarish jaane vaalee hai is not a problem: it is going to rain.)

My tutor, ever helpful, added: baarish parne vaalee hai, rain is about to fall.

a) aane

aanevaaloN ko kaun rok saktaa hai?  who can stop the invaders? (or guests/ immigrants, etc.)
kal aane vaale logoN se maiN naheeN mil paauNgaa, I will not be able to meet the people who are coming tomorrow. (RMKS)
aane vaaloN ko jaankaaree dene ke lie kaaryaalay bhee hogaa, there will also be an office for giving information to visitors. (HW: kabeer ggyaan mandir)
kisee sudoor vastu se aane vaalaa prakaash, the light coming from any distant object … (Hindi Wikipedia, under mareechikaa, ‘Mirage’)
… videshoN se aanevaale vyakti, people from other countries
har chaar varsh baad aane vaalaa varsh hai, jismen saal men 366 din hote haiN 
every 4 years there is (occurs) a year in which there are 366 days. (HW: adhivarsh, leap year)

A similar pattern to the one mentioned in Part 1, under jaane 1, also occurs elsewhere:
yooropeey bhaashaa-parivaar kee romaNs shaakhaa men aane vaalee ek bhaashaa hai.
It /This is a language in / belonging to the European Romance language family. (HW: spenish)
dillee ke riNg maarg par aane vaalaa ek bas staup hai. On the Delhi Ring Road, there is a bus stop. (HW: Mahaaraanee baagh) [?]

vriddhaavasthaa: ek dheere-dheere aane vaalee avasthaa hai. Old age: This is a slowly progressive state / condition. (HW: vriddhaavasthaa)

b) jaane 2 (the passive/relative construction)
aavaNtit kee jaane vaalee raashi, a sum to be distributed/allocated

Yeh duniabhar men paaee jaane vaalee machhaliyoN ke parivaar kee ek soochee hai. This is a list of fish families found all over the world. (… a worldwide list of …)
Yeh bhaarat men prayog kee jaane vaalee bhaashaaoN men se ek hai. This is one of the most used /spoken languages in India.
… prithvee par paae jaane vaale ek pramukh evaN mahattvapoorn tattva hai, … is one of the principal important elements found on earth (Hindi Wiki: kaarban)

4. vaalaa with other verbs

mukhya faayde men rahnevaalee paartee, the party with the major advantage  
(“the principal beneficiary”)
maansik gulamee rakhnevaalaa, emotionally dependent
mushkil paidaa karnevaale sahyogiyoN, troublesome allies [difficulty-creating]
pashchaataap karnevaale, penitent / remorseful people
kaan saaf karnevaale, ear cleaners (Patrick French, India)

girnevaalaa nahee hai, is not falling
doodhvaalee balti, bucket of milk (RKA)

Daa. manmohan siNh ke netritva vaalee yoopeee sarkaar, the Dr M. Singh-led UPA Government (= the UPA. Govt led by Dr M.S.) (L.K.Advani blog)
laal qile ke paas vaalee imaarateN, the buildings near the Red Fort (MS)

5.  Technical and Scientific Usage
(Most of these examples were obtained from the CFILT (Center for Indian Language Technology) Hindi Corpus listed later.)

x kee kshamtaa vaalaa y, y with capacity for x
x banaane vaalaa y,  x-producing y

kam raakh vaalaa, producing less ash
lambee gardan vaalaa kaaNch kaa balb, glass retort (lit: long-necked glass bulb)
sodrataa vaale ghol, concentrated solution (preceded by %)

nikalnevaale paudhe, emerging plants
tezee se barhnevaale paudhoN, (to) fast-growing plants
saNshleshan kee kshamtaa vaale paudhe, (the) plants capable of synthesis
ghaas ke parivaar vaale paudhoN (men), (in) plants of the grass family
reNgne vaale paudhoN, (to) creepers (plants)

vishaile vaairas vaale kuttoN, poisonous virus-carrying dogs
suraNg banaane vaalaa keet (leef maainar), tunnel-making insect (leaf miner) [= borer?]
paanee kheeNchne vaalaa pamp, water-drawing pump

nuqsaan pahuNchaane vaale keetoN, (to) toxic insects (= damage-transmitting)
krishi ko aavaNtit kee jaanevaalee raashi (men), funds to be allocated to agriculture
paalaa parnevaalaa sthaan, mist + fall-vaalaa + spot =  place with a patch of mist
(Anubhaag: ek gholne vaale kaarak yaa vilaayak ke roop men), Water: (Section: as a dissolving agent or solvent), (HW: jal)


The above critical mass of examples illustrates the endless capacity of the Hindi vaalaa suffix to allow new coinages and gives an idea of the flexible range of translation options which have to be employed. Would it be abusing the system to attempt a new coinage by describing my role here as that of a “wallah wallah” (or vaale vaalaa)?

Reference List

Authors mentioned

Agnihotri, Rama Kant. Hindi. An Essential Grammar, Routledge, London and New York, 2006, pp. 57-58. (RKA)
McGregor, R. S. Outline of Hindi Grammar, 3rd edition, New Delhi, 1995, pp. 169-172. (McG)   
Shapiro, Michael C. A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1989, pp. 90-91. (MS)
Sinha, R. Mahesh K.  See  http://www.cse.iitk.ac.in/users/rmk/   (RMKS)


Allied’s Hindi-English Dictionary, ed. Sangeeta S. Parikh, New Delhi, Allied, 2002. (with Romanised transliterations) 
Bahri, Hardev, Advanced Learner’s Hindi-English Dictionary, 2 vols, New Delhi, Rajpal, 1999. (with Romanised transliterations) (HB)

Bulcke, Father Camille, Hindee-AaNgrezee Kosh, Catholic Press, Ranchi, 2008. [This appears to be a posthumous publication since the author died in 1982. His English-Hindi Dictionary, 1968, was highly acclaimed and is still in print. See Wikipedia for his distinguished career.]

The site of a fabulous cornucopia of bilingual dictionaries in MANY languages. The Hindi-English dictionary has a very impressive number of vaalaa offerings. Far more than I have seen anywhere else, online or in print.  Bookmark it!

http://www.shabdkosh.com Another very useful online lexical tool, with a lively forum, listed below.

For other useful references see librarian Salman Haider’s website pages, notably this one.

Kumar, Arvind, The Penguin English-Hindi/Hindi-English Thesaurus and Dictionary.
Available for purchase from Arvind Lexicon: http://arvindlexicon.com/home
Also available there is the vast online version, The Arvind Lexicon Online Version (for an $18 annual subscription), and a smaller free version for visitors.

Hindi Corpus
The Center for Indian Language Technology (CFILT) Hindi Corpus
(Although not a very large corpus, and with an apparent preponderance of scientific texts, this is a treasure trove for any language researcher.)

Online Transliteration and Translation
(Indispensable aids for the wary contemporary user.)

Transliteration from English into Hindi: http://www.google.com/transliterate

Transliteration from Devanagari into Romanised Hindi:  http://www.hindidevanagari.com/transliteration/transliterate_to_latin.html
Google Translate (to, from, and between many languages): http://translate.google.com/
Microsoft BING Translator (to, from, and between many languages):  http://www.bing.com/translator/

Other useful websites for learners and students of Hindi

Also from CFILT: Indo-Wordnet. “A Wordnet of Indian Languages”: http://www.cfilt.iitb.ac.in/indowordnet/index.jsp

A forum for questions on Hindi and English translation: http://www.shabdkosh.com/forums/viewforum/3/

http://www.wordreference.com  [another forum]

http://goindia.about.com/od//learningthelanguag1/Learning_the_Language_in_India.htm/, with its helpful course recommendations, and language hints by Sharell Cook.

Professor Frances Pritchett of Columbia University has a labyrinthine and very stylish website on Urdu language and literature. For Hindi students there are many insights in his long series on the work of C. M. Naim.


And last but not least:
Rupert Snell’s excellent Teach Yourself Beginner’s Hindi (London, Hodder Headline and USA, McGraw-Hill, 2003).
That was where my search for Hindi enlightenment began.

Note: The introduction to this series is available here, or here.